Services are not necessarily made to respond to the public by giving our citizens a democratic voice, and a distant and diffuse one at that, in their make-up. Harm reduction facilities have in general been implemented as urban services, i. Neighbours were as organized as the social workers. In this important new volume, development and other social policy scholars and practitioners seek to rebut this simplistic conclusion, while addressing the problems of power and politics which have beset some approaches to participation. In general, communities are rarely dissuaded from protesting against harm reduction facilities by public meetings, and policy-makers are then left with little option but to involve the community in the implementation process, in the hope it might appease their concerns.
I contend that there are generalizable findings, and in the following sections I will seek to establish how the countries of northern Europe have increasingly become subject to a common set of pressures and priorities within the field of public policy. In all these respects voice is the opposite of exit. Offe and Preuss 1990:169 The argument that Offe and Preuss are advancing is that democracy will only work well, in modern society, if people are willing and able to listen to different arguments and positions from the ones that they currently hold. Some addi tional support was provided by the Federal Office for Education and Science, as the project was also integrated in a European project Cost Action 614. At the heart of Swiss democratic practice lie referendums and popular initiatives, which are held at both state and local level.
However, as this book aims to show, where such a commitment is forthcoming then such innovations can and do offer the potential to significantly strengthen the democratic process. His case study of political participation in Kenya discusses administration, party politics, ethnicity, and class. The chapters explore battles and diplomacy, economics and finance, law and culture, politics and society, gender, race, and religion. The 1973 oil crisis, coupled as it was with high inflation levels, brought the postwar boom to a sudden halt. A former red-light district, Kleinbasel has been in gentrification since the early 1980s and is nowadays considered as one of the exciting places to live in Basel.
But neither is it empty: whether individuals and societies are committed to this idea makes an enormous difference. Switzerland is a federal state, where in each policy field there exists a constitutionally defined partition of competence between the cantons and the central state. Finally, alongside other Scandinavian countries, Denmark has embarked on a programme of municipal deregulation. Switzerland has probably been the most reticent of all the northern European nations with respect to new public management changes. The value of the Drogenstammtisch has begun to be recognized by the general community, and it is now respected as a place where the community can discuss their preoccupations and opinions concerning drug policy measures with social workers, representatives of the government and drug users.
The principle behind this strategy has been to marketize public services and in doing so provide service users with greater responsiveness underpinned by greater choice. This involves defining more clearly the elements which comprise democracy and empowerment and their relative importance. Social worker, Basel In some cases, neighbours believed that their point of view had lost out to a plethora of alternative views: The neighbours felt that this neighbourhood commission has changed into a place of organized interests of drug users and their social workers. This definition encompasses a whole gamut of different elite and active policy actors such as stakeholders, pressure groups, lobby groups, representative organizations, secondary associations, activists, scientists, government agencies, and corporations. The three highest rungs partnership, delegated power and citizen control represent what Arnstein calls degrees of citizen power.
Similar results were looked for in the Swiss case, and the relationship was explored between strength of opinions held during the face-toface interview preceding the choice questionnaire , prior instability i. The second focuses on three enduring themes of the last decades of the twentieth century: fiscal crisis, public disenchantment with local and national government, and the development of the European Union. Villadsen 1993 argues that in Denmark the Right has had some success in seeking to take control of the political agenda because it has been more certain about how it intends to handle public management reforms, whereas the Left has had little more to hang onto than decentralization. The authors focus their attention on three key areas: the electoral process, including elections and the way people get involved; the impact of location, including demographic shifts and changing development patterns; and the critical role of nonprofit organizations and voluntary associations, including the philanthropy that help keep them going. Mouffe 1992:235 The search for Habermasian consensus is therefore a delusion. The aim of such free communes has been to increase local adaptability, lessen state control and increase local influence in local policymaking Blair 1991. In such a conflictual situation, dialogue was only considered possible when all actors believed they could express themselves freely and in doing so would not be compromised into accepting something they did not want.
The pure exit option leaves people with no way to remedy any past problems. As Dyrberg 1997 argues, power assumes a circular form, in which all participate. Firstly, this has involved radical decentralization from state to municipality, the central aim being to build out the influence of large numbers of pressure groups felt to have driven up costs. Public organizations may be happier conceding some form of control to users over decisions on operational matters than they are over matters of resource expenditure or, particularly, over policy making. The German interviews were conducted in Berlin, Dresden, Karlsruhe, Munich, and Stuttgart between January and March 2003. Thirdly, there is already a high level of citizen involvement in local policy-making as a consequence of the Swiss commitment to direct democracy. Moreover, with respect to policy for socially marginalized individuals, most cantons have delegated responsibility to municipalities.
In the view of Jürgen Habermas, the enabling state appears as a public policy model that uncouples the policy process from the democratic procedures of decision making, since policy goals are no longer defined through public debate but rather in behind the scenes negotiations between government, public administrators and the enabled implementing agencies Habermas 1992:389. Amazon directly handles delivery, customer service and returns. . The decision to create a facility is taken without significant regard to local interests. The strengths and weaknesses of the different initiatives can then be analyzed in terms of their potential for empowerment, according to where they fall on the matrix.
Initiatives can be defined on two axes. The chapters critically assess both the key works of state and local politics literature and the ways in which the sub-field has developed. Consequently, while new public managerialism may have been more overtly ideological in Britain and its pace greater, the overall pattern for local service provision has certain similarities across northern Europe. Given that a majority of the initiatives discussed in this book have been established by the state rather than the community, doubt remains as to whether the desire to involve both users and public will extend as far as a willingness to transfer to the community a significant degree of power over agenda setting, policy appriasal and policy implementation. However, those who support the exit option as a means of personal empowerment, argue that it enables people to make choices for themselves, rather than being reliant on bureaucrats, so-called experts, monopoly suppliers or collective decisions where they may disagree with the decision taken. Similar criticisms have been levied at Habermas, as I showed earlier. Developments in public participation within British health policy offer an interesting comparison to the German planning cells.