Melik Etiology of Fear and Anxiety 45 et al. Thus, the presentation, epide-miology, and correlates of the following disorders differ across age groups. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 1120—1126. Treatment strategies may be informed by the functionalcriteria of the diagnosis. A personality scale of manifest anxiety. Forexample, Beidel 1991 compared three groups of children: children withoveranxious disorder, children with social phobia, and children who werenot clinically anxious.
We would be overwhelmed by extrane-ous stimuli if it were not for selective attention. This is expensive and redundant for the family and child, but the advantage of this method would be that both interviewers would be able to independently ask the questions that they felt were pertinent in making a certain diagnosis. Individuals with high anxiety sensitivity are more likely to experience anxiety symptoms as threatening, and high anxiety sensitivity has been found to be a risk factor for panic disorder. This difference could be attributedto a variety of factors, and the findings raise major questions concerningthe most appropriate interpretation of twin data. The compulsions are performed according to rigid rules andare not realistically connected with what they are designed to prevent, orthey are clearly excessive.
The great advantage of functional systemsof diagnosis is that they are highly relevant for treatment. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 23, 19520. Journal ofExperimental Psychology, 3, 114. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,30, 545552. Subjects were presented with one of three sets of words: general threat words mutilated, lonely , achievement threat words stupid, ignorant , or neutral words cooking, staircase. Social phobia and separation anxiety symptoms in community and clinical samples of children and adolescents.
Relationship 32 foundational issues of childhood anxiety to adult panic disorder: Correlates and influence on course. Each stage, because of the different developmental tasks, was posited to relate to a different type of anxiety. Biological Psychiatry, 50 9 , 721—724. Finally, in contrast to most reports, some studies have found an over-whelming environmental influence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 117, 434—441.
The structural model posits a personality comprised of an id, ego, and superego, with anxiety resulting from conflict between these forces and the need to inhibit unacceptable thoughts and feelings from emerging into conscious awareness. Clinical Psy-chology Review, 20 4 , 453478. What is the Revised Fear Survey Schedule for Children measuring? They found that the group of chil-dren with emotional disorders which consisted of overanxious disorder,avoidant disorder, dysphoria, adjustment problems, and selective mutism were the most unlikely to receive the same diagnosis at follow-up. Chil-dren do not necessarily have to meet this criterion. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33 1 , 1—14. Omaha: University of Nebraska Press. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 133—143.
Very high rates of comorbid anxiety disorders or consistent patterns of comorbidity tend to indicate that the diagnostic system is not differentiating between anxiety disorders, but rather depicts a single category. Anxiety and the worry process. Cognitive-behavioral theories suggest that anxiety disorders are perpetuated by an interaction among these factors. Longitudinal Course A series of studies have examined the longitudinal outcome of children withvarious forms of anxiety disorders. Beyond the amygdala and cortex, the hippocampal formation has beenimplicated in some aspects of anxiety as well as depression. When the amygdala of a patient having brain surgery is stimulated, the patient often experiences realistic hallucinations, thoughts, or perceptions coupled with fear Dozier, 1998. Journal of the American Academy ofChild and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 668675.
In addition to inappropriate reactions to new situations, the anxious individual remains geared for defensive action long after the situation has passed. Children with a primary diagnosis ofoveranxious disorder were more likely to be diagnosed with social phobia. False suffocation alarms, spontaneous panics, and relatedconditions: an integrative hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 99 1 , 2035. First, children with behavior disorders were more likelyto be boys, whereas children with anxiety disorders were more likely to begirls. Diagnostic Issues 29 Boyle, M.
Several structured interviews have been developed for assessing childrenwith anxiety disorders. Early separation anxiety and its relationship to adult anxiety disorders. As in thestudy by Warren et al. Towards a cognitive theory of emotions. Pollack, Otto, Sabatino, and Majcher 1996 interviewed asample of adults with anxiety disorders, and 50% of them retrospectivelyreported that they had anxiety disorders as children. Evaluative criteria for psychiatric clas-sification. Cerebral laterality in adolescent major depression.