Steel square use of the scales roof framing illustrative problems and other uses
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These three columns of figures show that a rafter with a run of 12 and a rise of 4 has 1-6 pitch, with a run of 12 and a rise of 6 has 1-4 pitch, with a run of 12 and a rise of 8 has 1-3 pitch, and so on to the bottom of the figures. Run lines radial from A as shown; these are the riser lines. Such a one has a decided advantage over his fellow-workman; and if to his superior knowledge he possesses a steady manner, and industrious habits, his efforts cannot fail of being rewarded. The method shown in anticipates the use of another tool besides the square in making the test. Lay the square to be tested onto one of these angles, as shown in the illustration, and with a chisel-pointed pencil scribe along the blade and along the tongue. Or if you want to convert this to 8ths 16ths or 32nds or 64ths, multiply 0. To get the proper length and bevels for a brace to fit in this situation we must use 12 inches on the tongue and 16 inches on the blade, then the bevel of the upper end of the brace will be found along the line of the tongue, and the line of the blade will give the bevel for the foot of the brace.

In cutting jack rafters allow for half the thickness of hip or valley rafters as lengths given on square are to center lines. In our framing square photo above the framing square heel is indicated by the yellow arrow. The lines ss, , show the tenons left on the end of the braces. Framing square number legibility improvement tip: As the numbers and line markings on your framing square are recessed, having been stamped into the metal of its body, you can improve the legibility of a monotonic framing square for you carpenters that means it's all the same color , by painting the whole square surface with white latex paint. He will see and adopt it at once without argument. True, mechanical knowledge was not always so easily obtained as at present, for nearly all works on the constructive arts were written by professional architects, engineers, and designers, and however unexceptionable in other respects, they were generally couched in such language, technical and mathematical, as to be perfectly unintelligible to the majority of workmen; and instead of acting as aids to the ordinary inquirer, they enveloped in mystery the simplest solutions of every-day problems, discouraging nine-tenths of workmen on the very threshold of inquiry, and causing them to abandon further efforts to master the intricacies of their respective trades. For an example, always use 8, which is 1-3 of 24, on tongues for altitude; 12, ½ the width of 24, on blade for base.

Wreaths for stairs with flights which stand at either acute or obtuse angles to each other may be set out by the methods that have been here described. To get all the different lengths might at first look difficult even to many good mechanics, but it is 66 very simple as illustrated in. On the fifth line under 8 are the figures 10 and 12. In is shown the intersection of the rafters at the peak and as the lengths of all rafters are scaled to run to a common center it is necessary that the common rafters must cut back so as to fit in the angle formed by the hips. Here we have the fence in use, and the square is shown in all its positions from start to finish in the formation of the brace.

I have, therefore, only given such examples as will enable any one to apply some one of them to any work in hand. The tongue on the square is 1¾ inches wide, thus making it convenient for spacing, as much of the dimension lumber is 1¾ inches thick. This gives for inside measurements blade, 22½ inches and tongue 16 inches. The application of the square and fence combined for laying out a housed string for stairs is shown at. The next thing to be considered is the use of the figures, lines, and scales, as exhibited on the square. It will be seen that the fence or guide used in connection with the square is, after all, a very simple matter, and would, no doubt, suggest itself to any clever workman who was laying off rafters with the square.

Yet some of these men have worked 6 at this trade or that for a third of a century, and are to all appearances, satisfied with the little they learned when they were apprentices. Knock off the block and draw a chalk mark across the table, just in front of the teeth. About this Item: Caxton, Surrey No date. These early squares were of course not steel squares, since steel was then unknown. By my way I simply multiply the width of the 76 building by the decimal.

Boards are mildly edge worn. Although probably nine out of ten squares in use are of the size mentioned, it is well to know that some are slightly different. If your roof raises 12 inches to the foot, or half pitch, look under 12, and so on in all cases. The sixth line of figures gives the side cut of hip or valley rafter against ridge board or deck. For stuff 2 inches thick double the figure.

Special Case in the Brace Table on a Framing Square: the 3-4-5 or 6-8-10 rule for Finding a Right Angle Below is a photograph of the back of the framing square heel. In hardwood framing the framer never applies these rules, but gets his lengths with the square and fence. Roof framing can be done about as many different ways as there are mechanics. A carpenter's framing square includes tables stamped right into the tool itself. The general directions for using this square—a copy of which is given to every purchaser of a square—are presented herewith, so that the reader will be able himself to judge of the merits of the tool.

If we know the roof run and rafter length, we find the roof slope by calculation or we use the framing square table just below and then easily find the roof rise. In this example the blade is set off at 10 inches, which makes the tread, and the tongue shows the riser, which is set off at 7 inches. It is not enough, nowadays, for a person to have attained the character of a good workman; that phrase implies that quantum of excellence, which consists in working correctly and neatly, under the directions of others. The side cut of jack to fit hip, if laid down level would, of course, be square miter, but the more the hip rises the sharper the angle. Square over at each end from the gauge line and you have the toe of the brace. The third column of figures in fractions represents the various pitches.

The same process should be gone through on the tongue. The following table, which was prepared especially for this square, shows the manner of working the square: Fig. I open this division with a few hints regarding the construction, or rather the laying out of a Hip-Roof where the design has been furnished by an architect, and which, of course, shows the pitch and the lay of the timbers. In the first place it is always best to make a pattern and then mark out the timber work from the pattern. We want to convert 46. This square has been a special favorite with workmen for nearly thirty years, and is still looked upon by many as being the ne plus ultra of steel squares.

You will recognize this scale, if it's on your framing square, by noticing that it counts up in multiples of 5 with dots between the octagon scale markings. In cutting braces always allow in length from a sixteenth to an eighth of an inch more than the exact measurement calls for. The great bulk of readers, however, will be new hands and unacquainted with the use of the square beyond its simple application as a squaring tool, and what may appear to be a useless rule to the expert or old hand will prove a choice tidbit to the beginner and will whet his appetite for further knowledge on the subject. For a hopper the mitre is cut on the same principle. So if the student or mechanic will fix in his mind the measurements of a few runs, with the length of braces, he can readily work almost any length required. Where the rails are pitched both ways, the bed block has to be cut at the double inclination.